How Pollution is impacting the metro cities of India
Pollution may be referred to as the contaminants of the natural environment that had caused some adverse changes. Contamination can occur in the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants are the components of infection which can be either foreign substances or energies, or it may also be some naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classified as either point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed a total of 9 million people throughout the world. Some significant forms of infection may be categorised as Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution.
In the 2016 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) India ranked 141 out of 180 countries in the survey. According to this survey , but the open burning of waste can be referred to as the significant source of toxic air pollutants such as particulates, carbon monoxide, black carbon, dioxins, furans, and mercury. Air pollution in India is caused by fuelwood and biomass burning, burning of crop residue in agriculture fields on a large scale, or the use of contaminated fuel, emissions from vehicles and traffic congestion. India has ranked the third-largest in the discharge of greenhouse gases after China and the United States. The severity of air pollution is so high that life expectancy among Indians on an average has reduced by 3.4 years while among the residents of Delhi it has nearly reduced to almost 6.3 years.
The inappropriate or excessive use of artificial lights is known as light pollution. Light pollution can be recognised as a side effect of industrial civilisation. The sources of light pollution consist of building exterior and interior lighting, advertising, commercial properties, offices, factories, streetlights, and illuminated sporting venues. The fact is that much outdoor lighting used at night is inefficient, overly bright as well as poorly targeted, improperly shielded, and, in many instances, it is entirely unnecessary. This light and the electricity used to create it is being wasted by spilling it into the sky, rather than focusing it on to the actual objects and areas that need to be illuminated.
Noise pollution can be recognised as one of the significant environmental concerns in India today, and sadly, many are unaware of the hazards it is capable of causing. It is miserable that we all are subjected to some form of loud noises for a considerable amount of time throughout the day. It is a daily perplexity to deal with the unnecessary havoc created by the constant blowing of horns on the roads, the madness created by the loudspeakers, the festive-time expression of happiness, or any such procession being carried through the streets, too much of background noise of Indian melodramatic serials creating a mess in almost every household and innumerable other sources we can’t even think of. It seems like people have a significant perception about happiness which they feel can better be expressed by creating loud noises. Even a child-birth in rural households is informed by the crackling sounds created by kitchen utensils.
Plastic pollution can be referred to as the accumulation of plastic objects and particles example plastic bottles in the Earth’s environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, and human lifestyle to a great extent. Plastics that act as pollutants are categorised into micro-, meso-, or macro debris, based on their size. Plastics are inexpensive and durable, and as a result, levels of plastic production by humans are very high. However, the chemical structure of most plastics makes them resistant to many natural processes of degradation, and as a result, the process of degradation is slow for them. Together, these two factors have led to a high prominence of plastic pollution in the environment.
The primary source of pollution that has emerged into the metro cities of India is primarily because of the poor air, water and soil quality as a result of excessive pollution. There is concrete evidence of the fact that air pollution leads to low birth-weight, tuberculosis, ischemic heart disease, cataracts, asthma and nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers. Air pollution is linked to diseases and infections that are capable of killing around 600,000 children under five years of age per year. Water pollution, on the other hand, is one of the most significant issues being faced by India right now. As may be evident, untreated sewage is the most significant source of such form of pollution in India. As per research studies, it is estimated that almost 80% of the water bodies in the metro cities in India are highly polluted. As far as India is concerned, dirty water is one of the significant factors behind the tremendous increase in the low levels of health quality in India. Contaminated water is capable of leading to diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, dysentery, jaundice, diarrhoea, etc. Around 80% of stomach ailments in India occurs because of consuming polluted water. Every form of life is somewhat affected by the increasing hazards of pollution, but contaminated air and water are one of the significant risks to a man being in the metro cities.